## Impressed sources and fields in the volume-integral-equation formulation of...

*J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 214*, 158-167, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2018.04.023.

Although free space cannot generate electromagnetic waves, the majority of existing accounts of frequency-domain electromagnetic scattering by particles and particle groups are based on the postulate of existence of an impressed incident field, usually in the form of a plane wave. In this tutorial we discuss how to account for the actual existence of impressed source currents rather than impressed incident fields. Specifically, we outline a self-consistent theoretical formalism describing electromagnetic scattering by an arbitrary finite object in the presence of arbitrarily distributed impressed currents, some of which can be far removed from the object and some can reside in its vicinity, including inside the object. To make the resulting formalism applicable to a wide range of scattering-object morphologies, we use the framework of the volume integral equation formulation of electromagnetic scattering, couple it with the notion of the transition operator, and exploit the fundamental symmetry property of this operator. Among novel results, this tutorial includes a streamlined proof of fundamental symmetry (reciprocity) relations, a simplified derivation of the Foldy equations, and an explicit analytical expression for the transition operator of a multi-component scattering object.