Particle Morphology and Density Characterization by Combined Mobility and...

Slowik, J. G., K. Stainken, P. Davidovits, L. R. Williams, J. T. Jayne, C. E. Kolb, D. Worsnop, Y. Rudich, P. F. DeCarlo, and J. Jimenez-Palacios (2004), Particle Morphology and Density Characterization by Combined Mobility and Aerodynamic Diameter Measurements. Part 2: Application to Combustion-Generated Soot Aerosols as a Function of Fuel Equivalence Ratio, Aerosol Science and Technology, 38, 1206-1222, doi:10.1080/027868290903916.

Composition, shape factor, size, and fractal dimension of soot aerosol particles generated in a propane/O2 flame were determined as a function of the fuel equivalence ratio (φ). Soot particles were first size-selected by a ifferential mobility analyzer (DMA) and then analyzed by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). The DMA provides particles of known mobility diameter (dm). The AMS quantitatively measures the mass spectrum of the nonrefractory components of the particles and also provides the vacuum aerodynamic diameter (dv a ) corresponding to the particles of known mobility diameter. The measured dm, dv a , and nonrefractory composition are used in a system of equations based on the formulation presented in the companion article to estimate the particle dynamic shape factor, total mass, and black carbon (BC) content. Fractal dimension was estimated based on the mass-mobility relationship. Two types of soot particles were observed depending on the fuel equivalence ratio. Type 1: for φ < 4 (lower propane/O2), dv a was nearly constant and independent of dm. The value of dva increased with increasing φ. Analysis of the governing equations showed that these particles were highly irregular (likely fractal aggregates), with a dynamic shape factor that increased with dm and φ. The fractal dimension of these particles was approximately 1.7. These particles were composed mostly of BC, with the organic carbon content increasing as φ increased. At φ = 1.85, the particles were about 90%BC, 5%PAH, and 5%aliphatic hydrocarbon (particle density = 1.80 g/cm3). Type 2: for φ > 4 (high propane/O2), dv a was linearly proportional to dm. Analysis of the governing equations showed that these particles were nearly spherical (likely compact aggregates), with a dynamic shape factor of 1.1 (versus 1 for a sphere) and a fractal dimension of 2.95 (3 for a sphere). These particles were composed of about 50% PAH, 45% BC, and 5% aliphatic hydrocarbons (particle density = 1.50 g/cm3). These results help interpret some measurements obtained in recent field studies.

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Tropospheric Composition Program (TCP)